With the current surge in national economy the industrial traffic has increased many folds in terms of quantity of load and traffic volume. This results in early deterioration of the roads. Also the serviceability reduces hampering the industry's supply of raw material and transport of finished goods.
However, the Colosseum was not actually completed and opened for business until 80 AD, during the reign of Titus. Far and away, the most important site for presenting games was the Circus Maximus, a huge stadium built around BC, which was, most notably, the domain of the frenetically popular chariot races.
The stadium, which could accommodatespectators, was yards long and yards wide; it enclosed a giant racetrack, which circled an elevated central island, or "spine", 1, feet in length, which was graced by statues, columns, fountains, and altars.
In addition to chariot races, the Circus was frequently used to host footraces, boxing and wrestling matches, and animal hunts. It was, much less frequently, used to stage gladiatorial contests, or theatrical events, which would tend to be diminished by such a massive venue.
Many racing fans, to try to improve their experience, therefore bought cushions from vendors on the way to the races, or else brought their own cushions with them.
This led to a more exciting and emotional atmosphere. Special seating, closer to the track, was reserved for Senators and nobles, although these figures were allowed to mingle with the other fans, if they preferred.
Julius Caesar made a special effort to protect spectators from the effects of the sun by utilizing huge awnings vela to provide shade, and he also dug a canal, ten feet in width, in front of the lower seats to neutralize the danger of wild beasts leaping into the crowd during the venationes.
While chariot racing and animal fights were almost exclusively staged in the Circus Maximus during the days of the Roman Republic, other forms of entertainment took place in settings that were far less impressive.
Although amphitheaters similar to those of ancient Greece existed, from early days, in the more heavily Greek-influenced south of Italy, and in Sicily, Rome, itself, for many years lacked a permanent theater for the presentation of plays, exhibitions of music and dance, acrobatics, and mime.
Although stages were occasionally erected in the Circus for the performance of theater events, the venue was too large and debilitating: A much more common setting for the construction of these temporary stages was in the Roman Forum, a large open space surrounded by hills, temples, and other edifices, where the Roman assemblies were accustomed to meeting.
Spectators would utilize the naturally conducive topography of the Forum to find a place to watch; later, numerous porticoes and balconies attached to the surrounding buildings were made available for spectators, and temporary stands were also erected. These special viewing posts seem to have required tickets that must be paid for, and led to turmoil in BC, when Gaius Gracchus and his followers forcibly removed stands that had been erected in the Forum, in an effort to democratize the spectacles which were becoming increasingly taken over by the elites.
Admission to the major festivals was expected to be free, and most forms of popular entertainment, including the chariot races, gladiatorial games, animal hunts, and theater events were generally accessible to the public, free of charge, although certain choice seats were sometimes paid for by those who could afford them.
In BC, Rome came close: Attempts were made to recoup financially from this debacle by auctioning off the stone, and other materials that had been poured into the ill-fated project.
It was up to Pompey, in 55 BC, to finally drag the concept of a permanent theater past its detractors and enemies into the heart of Roman life. As a powerful general, a Triumvir, and man of tremendous wealth accrued from the spoils of war, Pompey was in a strong position to finally materialize what had long been envisioned by the open-minded, and desired by the masses.
He seemed motivated by the hope of better connecting himself to the people by means of providing a gigantic gift to their pleasure, at the same time that he hoped to permanently glorify himself, and to diminish the impact of the generosity of others, by enclosing the spectacles which they brought to the people within an enduring reminder of himself.
All Roman rulers bribed the people with bread and circuses, and yet the one [Caesar] was popular and the other [Pompey] hated.
Seneca provided the answer: The people were more easily swayed by how a ruler did than by what he did, and respected the one who at least took the trouble to appear popular. The principal auditorium cavea of his new theater had a diameter of feet, and a stage that was the length of a football field yards.
Seats rising to a height of three stories sloped upwards from the "orchestra pit" and stage, and could accommodate up to 40, spectators. The stage, which was roofed, was backed by a huge scaenae frons, a painted and decorated facade also three stories in height, which contained three doors through which the actors and performers could enter.
An awning, or vela, covered the seats in the cavea to protect the spectators from the elements, and during the summer time, Pompey arranged for streams of cool water to be sent flowing through channels running down the aisles, as a kind of primitive air-conditioning system.
Well-planned stairways and corridors conducted spectators to their seats with a minimum of confusion and delay. As theatrical events in ancient Rome were initially bereft of a stable home, so gladiatorial contests presented at munera originally lacked permanent sites and structures to showcase them.
In the beginning, spectators would merely assemble and seek out the spots which presented the best vantage points for viewing the violence. As one analyst has stated: In any case, the audience was perhaps too exposed to the spectacle in this venue compared to the stadiums used in later days, which better protected the audience from the potential wrath and rebellion of the warriors they had assigned to kill each other.
There must have been a sense of danger, at times, with these desperate armed men so closely linked to them in space. Although the hope of being spared, as the victor, may have acted as a kind of psychological wall preventing the gladiator from turning on those who had come to watch him die, it was a wall that must have been, in many ways, frighteningly intangible - a wall of faith, surely less calming to the senses of the viewer than a wall of stone.
In these days, the number of fighters permitted to engage in gladiatorial combats at any one time was limited, for obvious security reasons. A large armed band of slaves and war captives assembled in the heart of the city was hardly a good idea, even if guards or soldiers were available to try to contain the spectacle.
It was a logical development, then, that, as the desire to compete for the favor of the masses by presenting bigger and more exciting spectacles impelled Roman politicians, ways would be found to safely stage grander gladiatorial events - events which would require larger, more secure venues, as well as more space to accommodate the rising enthusiasm of the populace.
One step in this direction was achieved by C. Scribonius Curio, who between 53 and 52 BC built two large "revolving" wooden theaters, back to back. When facing away from each other, they were used to present plays two shows could go on at once.
However, when desired, they could be pivoted around to face each other fit togethercreating a single, large amphitheater suitable for the presentation of gladiatorial combats.
In addition to the thrill of the shows, themselves, it seems that many Romans derived pleasure from remaining in their seats as the theaters, used to present plays in the morning, were slowly revolved around to face each other for gladiatorial displays in the afternoon.International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research.
The 13 Ghosts of Scooby-Doo had an Ethnic Scrappy in the form of Flim-Flam. What makes this example amazing is that Scrappy himself was in the show, but due to a setup that made better use of Scrappy's attitude and behavior, he became Rescued from the Scrappy heartoftexashop.com result is that Flim-Flam became more of a Scrappy than the trope namer, even though the trope namer was there.
Various aspects of the relationship between religion and science have been cited by modern historians of science and religion, philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others from various geographical regions and cultures.
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Science policy issues have recently joined technology issues in being acknowledged to have strategic importance for national ‘competitiveness’ and ‘economic security’. Analyzes the social causes of gender inequality. Explores origins, economics, politics, power, sexuality, violence, ideology, and other potential causes.