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Overview[ edit ] Many of the challenges associated with Internet censorship are similar to those for offline censorship of more traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, books, music, radio, television, and film.
One difference is that national borders are more permeable online: Thus censors must work to prevent access to information even though they lack physical or legal control over the websites themselves. This in turn requires the use of technical censorship methods that are unique to the Internet, such as site blocking and content filtering.
A Time Magazine article quotes computer scientist John Gilmoreone of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundationas saying "The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it. Blocking and filtering can be based on relatively static blacklists or be determined more dynamically based on a real-time examination of the information being exchanged.
Blacklists may be produced manually or automatically and are often not available to non-customers of the blocking software. Blocking or filtering can be done at a centralized national level, at a decentralized sub-national level, or at an institutional level, for example in libraries, universities or Internet cafes.
In some cases the censoring authorities may surreptitiously block content to mislead the public into believing that censorship has not been applied. This is achieved by returning a fake "Not Found" error message when an attempt is made to access a blocked website.
Pseudonymity and data havens such as Freenet protect free speech using technologies that guarantee material cannot be removed and prevents the identification of authors. Technologically savvy users can often find ways to access blocked content.
It is not enough to shed tears for those who suffer the tragedy of sexual abuse, nor will much be accomplished nurturing hatred and devising punishments for those who sexually abuse. Yahoo News, Fourteen arrested after Internet child porn investigation, 30 October, Scotland Yard has said that 14 people were arrested early on Tuesday morning across the UK and Ireland on suspicion of distributing child pornography across the Internet. Browse an alphabetical list of legal topics. Serving the Wisconsin Supreme Court and State of Wisconsin.
Nevertheless, blocking remains an effective means of limiting access to sensitive information for most users when censors, such as those in Chinaare able to devote significant resources to building and maintaining a comprehensive censorship system.
The verb " rivercrab " colloquially refers to censorship of the Internet, particularly in Asia. Access to a certain IP address is denied. If the target Web site is hosted in a shared hosting serverall websites on the same server will be blocked. A typical circumvention method is to find proxies that have access to the target websites, but proxies may be jammed or blocked, and some Web sites, such as Wikipedia when editingalso block proxies.
Some large websites such as Google have allocated additional IP addresses to circumvent the block, but later the block was extended to cover the new addresses. Due to challenges with geolocationgeo-blocking is normally implemented via IP address blocking.
Domain name system DNS filtering and redirection: Blocked domain names are not resolved, or an incorrect IP address is returned via DNS hijacking or other means. A typical circumvention method is to find an alternative DNS resolver that resolves domain names correctly, but domain name servers are subject to blockage as well, especially IP address blocking.
Another workaround is to bypass DNS if the IP address is obtainable from other sources and is not itself blocked. This affects the HTTP protocol. Terminate TCP packet transmissions when a certain number of controversial keywords are detected.
If a previous TCP connection is blocked by the filter, future connection attempts from both sides can also be blocked for some variable amount of time. Depending on the location of the block, other users or websites may also be blocked, if the communication is routed through the blocking location.
A circumvention method is to ignore the reset packet sent by the firewall. A technically simpler method of Internet censorship is to completely cut off all routers, either by software or by hardware turning off machines, pulling out cables.
A circumvention method could be to use a satellite ISP to access Internet. Major portals, including search enginesmay exclude web sites that they would ordinarily include. This renders a site invisible to people who do not know where to find it.
When a major portal does this, it has a similar effect as censorship.This course is designed to provide an overview on epidemiology and the Internet for medical and health related students around the world based on the concept of Global Health Network University and Hypertext Comic Books.
A Pew Research Center survey published two years ago found that 70% of toyear-olds who use the Internet had experienced harassment, and 26% of women that age said they'd been stalked online. Welcome to the Crimes Against Children Research Center Newly Released: The Complex Experience of Child Pornography Survivors.
The qualitiative analysis identified three major themes which emerged from survivors' perspectives: Guilt and shame, their ongoing vulnerability and, suprisingly, an empowerment dimension the images sometimes brought because they confirmed their abuse testimony.
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A look at state efforts to address child sexual abuse through training and curriculum for children and school staff, known as Erin's Law.
Child abuse is mainly perpetrated by an adult who wields physical and emotional control over a child. Many factors can relate to someone’s risk to abuse children. Some of the factors at work in child abuse are cultural, social, and personal.