This is not one single theory but a generic term used to describe all the perspectives that focus how our cognitive processes such as attention, perception, encoding, storage, and retrieval of knowledge. It uses a two store model where stimuli enter the Sensory Register and from there go to Short Term Memory. Here through rehearsal and encoding they can get stored in Long Term memory.
The information processing approach to cognition. Retrieved [date] from, http: Overview of the Cognitive System EdPsyc: Courses more in-depth paper Overview As stated in the introduction to this section, cognitive psychology represents the dominant approach in psychology today. A primary focus of this approach is on memory the storage and retrieval of informationa subject that has been of interest for thousands of years.
The most widely accepted theory is labeled the "stage theory," based on the work of Atkinson and Shriffin The focus of this model is on how information is stored in memory ; the model proposes that information is processed and stored in 3 stages.
In this theory, information is thought to be processed in a serial, discontinuous manner as it moves from one stage to the next. This theory is Cognitive information processing theory in more detail below.
In addition to the stage theory model of information processing, there are three more that are widely accepted. The first is based on the work of Craik and Lockhart and is labeled the "levels-of-processing" theory.
The major proposition is that learners utilize different levels of elaboration as they process information. This is done on a continuum from perception, through attention, to labeling, and finally, meaning.
The key point is that all stimuli that activate a sensory receptor cell are permanently stored in memory, but that different levels of processing i.
Evidence from hypnosis and forensic psychology provide some interesting support for this hypothesis. This approach has been extended by Bransford who suggests that it is not only how the information is processed, but how the information is accessed. When the demands for accessing information more closely match the methods used to elaborate or learn the information, more is remembered.
Two other models have been proposed as alternatives to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model: The parallel-distributed processing model states that information is processed simultaneously by several different parts of the memory system, rather than sequentially as hypothesized by Atkinson-Shiffrin as well as Craik and Lockhart.
Work done on how we process emotional data somewhat supports this contention see Goleman, The stage-theory model shown below differs slightly from the original Atkinson-Shriffin model in order to incorporate this feature. The connectionistic model proposed by Rumelhart and McClelland extends the parallel-distributed processing model.
It is one of the dominant forms of current research in cognitive psychology and is consistent with the most recent brain research see Scientific American, This model emphasizes the fact that information is stored in multiple locations throughout the brain in the form of networks of connections.
It is consistent with the levels-of-processing approach in that the more connections to a single idea or concept, the more likely it is to be remembered. Even though there are widely varying views within cognitive psychology, there are a few basic principles that most cognitive psychologists agree with.
General principles The first is the assumption of a limited capacity of the mental system. This means that the amount of information that can be processed by the system is constrained in some very important ways.
Bottlenecks, or restrictions in the flow and processing of information, occur at very specific points. A second principle is that a control mechanism is required to oversee the encoding, transformation, processing, storage, retrieval and utilization of information.The Information Processing Theory and Instructional Model rely on three key principles: The information provided by our environment is constantly processed by a complex series of systems.
The processing systems modify the information we gather in “systematic” ways. The Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS) is committed to the development of mind and brain research aimed at investigating the psychological, computational, and neuroscientific bases of cognition.
The term cognitive neuroscience has now been with us for almost three decades, and identifies an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the nature of thought. Theory "Cognitive load theory has been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual performance".
Sweller's theory employs aspects of information processing theory to emphasize the inherent limitations of concurrent working memory load on learning during instruction.
Thanks for the post Harry. What has me puzzled is your example of group A and B and the length finding. From most discussions on the theory and the recent focus on explicit direct instruction, I would have guessed group A should perform better. Based on decades of theory, research, and practice, this seminalbook presents a detailed and comprehensive review, evaluation, andintegration of the scientific and empirical research relevant toAaron T.
Beck's cognitive theory and therapy of depression. This book is designed to help practitioners in translating theory to practice in the delivery of career counseling and services.
The theoretical focus of the book is the cognitive information processing (CIP) approach to career problem solving and decision-making developed and applied at Florida State University since