Posted on September 30, by Scott Alexander [Content warning: Try to keep this off Reddit and other similar sorts of things. All the townspeople want to forgive him immediately, and they mock the titular priest for only being willing to give a measured forgiveness conditional on penance and self-reflection.
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French Nietzscheanism Under the Nazi dictatorship —45philosophy in Germany was effectively stifled. Even Heidegger, who was a prolific writer, published very little during these years. Heidegger joined the Nazi Party in and never renounced his membership.
In the years immediately after the war, French philosophy was marked by an enthusiasm for German thinkers, including Hegel, Husserl, Heidegger, and, above all, Nietzsche.
As many commentators have pointed out, it is ironic that in this period Germany enjoyed a hegemony in French intellectual life that it had failed to achieve in the political sphere during the war.
Foucault The Hegel renaissance in France was short-lived, however. Influenced by new developments in the social sciences especially linguistics and anthropology and by the antimetaphysical doctrines of Nietzsche and the later Heideggera new generation of philosophers set out to overthrow Sartrean existential humanism—in their view, the most recent incarnation of subjectivist and metaphysical excess.
Whereas Sartre stressed the dignity of human existence as embodied in the For-itself, Heidegger emphasized the primacy of being—and thus, by implicationthe derivative or subaltern status of human being.
As an aspect of the intellectual culture of the Third Republichumanism suffered from its association with the ignominious surrender of France to Hitler and Nazism in Its reputation also was tarnished by the role historically played by Western philosophy in the legitimation of imperialism.
Last, both anthropological and linguistic structuralism exhibited a scientific rigour that made the humanistic disciplines—including philosophy—seem both unrigorous and mired in the past.
Animals are divided into: The epistemological implications of this amusing parable seemed clear enough to Foucault: During his structuralist phase, Foucault frequently employed geological metaphors.
Eventually, Foucault came to recognize that the structuralism by which he was influenced imposed its own conceptual constraints.
According to the standard account, in his later work he shifted the focus of his analysis from language to power. The integral relationship between psychiatry and mental asylums is one example of such mutual legitimation; the relationship between surveillance or discipline and the organization of prisons is another.
Derrida The other major representative of philosophical post-structuralism is Jacques Derrida —who burst onto the philosophical scene in with three important publications: Unlike Foucault, who was chiefly concerned with the relationship between the humanistic disciplines and power, Derrida concentrated on the history of philosophy.
The Western conception of truth as presence, therefore, is impossible. Among them were mind versus body or matternature versus culture, intelligible versus sensible, internal versus external, present versus absent, literal versus metaphorical or figurativeand speech versus writing.
In each of these oppositions, one member of the pair is assumed to be primary or fundamental, the other secondary or derivative.
To deconstruct an opposition is to show how this assumption of primacy is contradicted or undermined by various aspects of the meaning of the text in which the opposition appears—and particularly by aspects of meaning that depend on figurative or performative uses of language.
But in reality it is a distinction that possesses meaning only within culture itself. Derrida cautioned that a mere reversal of the relation of primacy within the opposition would solve little, since it was the opposition itself that was problematic—the inversion of a metaphysical opposition is still a metaphysical opposition.
Moreover, he insisted, the result of deconstruction is not an end to metaphysics, since there is no alternative set of nonmetaphysical concepts with which it could be replaced.
Yet the details of this process of reinscription were never clarified. Modernity [is] distinguished by the attempt to develop from the identification and appropriation of being by knowledge toward the identification of being and knowledge.
Identical and non-identical are identified, [and] the labor of thought wins out over the otherness of things and men. It is ironic, then, that a continental philosophical tradition that began as an impassioned defense of reason in the face of epistemological skepticism should conclude—as do the French Nietzscheans—by equating reason with domination, insisting that the hegemony of reason be rejected or overthrown.
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Continental philosophy - French Nietzscheanism: Under the Nazi dictatorship (–45), philosophy in Germany was effectively stifled. Even Heidegger, who was a prolific writer, published very little during these years. (Heidegger joined the Nazi Party in and never renounced his membership.) In the years immediately after the war, French philosophy was marked by an enthusiasm for German.
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