Some assessments tend to agree that the revival of Shiite factions and their conflict with Sunnis will shape the future of Middle East politics; Iran has a key role in this respect. What are the aims of Iran and the Shia factions in establishing close relationships in the region and especially in Iraq? What are the roots of the new rivalry between Shia and Sunni factions in the region?
Policies and political mistakes of the Shah[ edit ] His strong policy of Westernization and close identification with a Western power the United States despite the resulting clash with Iran's Shi'a Muslim identity.
Overnight, the year changed from to A short, sharp period of economic contraction and decline in —78 following a considerable period of economic growth, that according to scholar of revolutions Crane Brinton creates disappointment much greater "than if people had been left in poverty all along.
The shah's terminal illness was a secret at the time, but the shah knew he was dying of cancer, and his medication made him "depressed and listless".
In addition several of the shah's closest advisers had recently died, and palace personnel were reportedly fired wholesale in the summer of Efforts to please the opposition were "too little too late,"  but no concerted counter-attack was made against the revolutionaries either. The shah was careful to meet with each of his top aides and generals individually.
In the absence of a fully functioning shah, the system could not function. Success of modernist Islamists Abolhassan Banisadr and Ali Shariati in presenting an Islamic ideology that "appeared modern, liberal and appealing," and in so doing won over much of the Iranian middle class.
OPEC had Iran and Iraq sat down and made to work aside differences, which resulted in relatively good relations between the two nations throughout the s. In the Shah made a request to then-Vice President Saddam Hussein to banish the expatriate Ayatollah Khomenei from Iraq, who had been living there in exile for the past 15 years.
In light of keeping up good relations with Iran and that Khomenei was not overly supportive of the current Iraqi regime, Hussein agreed to do this.
From this point Khomenei moved to France, where he better coordinated the nascent Islamic Revolution. External factors[ edit ] Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union long competed with each other for the domination of Iran.
Britain maintained its control of the Iranian oil industry for a long time using its alliance with power bloc, landlords and courts and was able to reduce the power of the US and the Soviets in Iran. On the other hand, the United States and the Soviet Union were mainly interested in logistically important location of Iran and wanted an oil concession in northern part of Iran.
The US also, could reduce the influence of the communism in Iran by its more open presence in Iran.
Therefore, the Shah, with some pressure from the Kennedy administration, opted for Amini group, which had no popular base, but a full US support and a clear reform program. Despite having a reformist ideology, Amini did not gain popular support from the National Front, identified with Mossadegh, and the Tudeh Party.
InAmini resigned and Alam, a faithful friend of the shah who had no intention of reform but to consolidate the power of the monarchy, became the new prime minister and laid the ground for the Shah to reestablish his dictatorship in early The paralyzing crisis of the state made the Shah concerned about the future of his throne.
Although, very undesirable for Shah to introduce another round of liberalization policies, the first round being in the early s, he had no other choice but to do so.
Therefore, in the early Shah announced liberalization policies to gain the US support once again and resolve the crises of the state. In the midShah allowed open discussion forum for the Rastakhiz Party to discuss the social issues publicly. As Amjad quotes Tocqueville in his book, the political liberalization following a long period of repression results in a social upheaval and revolution.
In the Iranian case, although the aim of the policy was to appease the oppositions and gain the US support, instead it provided the suitable condition for the opposition to organize its forces against the regime.
Following the liberalization policies, the network of 80, mosques run bymullahs played a crucial role in mobilizing the people against the regime.
Doubts about causes[ edit ] Charles Kurzman, author of The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran  has postulated that the explanations offered by observers for why the revolution occurred "are only partially valid," and that "the closer we listen to the people who made the revolution - the more anomalies we find.
Moderate religious leaders Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari called for calm and a stay-at-home strike which prevented more casualties to commemorate 40 days later.
Could we have said in early that because Iranian culture includes a forty-day mourning cycle, the country was more likely than other countries to undergo a revolution?
Rather, a knowledgeable observer would probably have noted that this mourning cycle had been put to protest purposes only once in Iranian history, inand that movement had come to naught.
But this does not explain why "there was very little oppositional activity" in the recession of —76 when unemployment and inflation were at similar levels to those of Kurzman points out that "even as the shah arrived in Washington" for a state visit in late"his regime's partial tolerance of oppositional activity was disappearing.
In Novemberas the shah ingratiated himself with Jimmy Carter, liberals were in retreat. Skocpol argued that the revolution diverges from past revolutions in three distinct ways: The revolution does seem to have been solely caused by excessively rapid modernization by the state that led to social disruption.
The Iranian Revolution is the only modern revolution which was deliberately and coherently fomented by a revolutionary movement consisting of different social classes united under the leadership of a senior Shia cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
This was achieved through demonstrations and strikes advancing with fervor against even lethal military repression. The fact that the revolution was successful can only be explained by reference to sustained extraordinary efforts by the urban Iranians to wear down and undermine the regime.
Bazaars in particular became centers of associational life, with Islamic groups and occasions tying people together through clerics' interpreting Islamic laws to settle commercial disputes and taxing the well-to-do to provide welfare for devout poorer followers. An endless succession of prayer-meetings and rituals were organized by both clergy and the laity.
Bazaars also enjoyed ties with more modern sectors of Iranians society as many Iranian university students were from the merchant class. But since s, Shah aroused the defense and oppositions of the bazaar by attempts at bring under control their autonomous councils and marginalizing the clergy by taking over their educational and welfare activities.
In the mass revolutionary movements during the traditional urban communities played an indispensable role in making sustained mass struggle possible. The workers relied on economic aid from bazaar during their strikes and the secular opponents depended on alliance with clerics and lay leaders of the bazaar to mobilize the masses.Iran's Nuclear Program Essay Words | 10 Pages.
I. Topic Description Iran’s Nuclear Program The Islamic Republic of Iran’s conquest for nuclear energy technology commenced during the ’s, inspired by U.S President Dwight Eisenhower’s program called “Atoms for Peace”.
As of , the government of Iran maintains diplomatic relations with 99 members of the United Nations, but not with the United States, and not with Israel—a state which Iran's government has derecognized since the Revolution. tation in Tehran or commercial relations with any Iranian entity since the revolution.
contributed to include conceptualizing and budgeting for continued transformation of defense practices; the most significant realignment of US military forces and bases United States neglect the .
Political relations between Iran and US came into existence at the time of Shah of Persia in the mid s.
A long period of time Persia and United States remained political and cultural allies until the post world war II the political allies were the relationship between the Iran and the United States until Essay How does Iran continue to resist US sanctions?
This paper will seek to identify three key aspects of US sanctions imposed on Iran. First the paper will briefly introduce the reasons as to why US and Iran relations have worsened since the Islamic Revolution.
Focuses on the domestic political underpinnings of Iran's foreign policy behaviour in respect of (1) the war against Iraq, the course of which is decided by the struggle between the professional military and the Revolutionary Guards (2) its US policy, in which relations with the Great Satan were improved only to gain arms supplies for the war effort.