This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Drought is one of the greatest constraints to soybean production in many countries, including Vietnam. Although a wide variety of the newly produced cultivars have been produced recently in Vietnam through classical breeding to cope with water shortage, little knowledge of their molecular and physiological responses to drought has been discovered.
Top of page Phony disease of peach spread within the south-eastern USA from the s until about Turner and Pollard,and the spread of citrus variegated chlorosis disease of orange throughout Brazil in the s Laranjeira, was documented.
The origins of these strains are unknown but are likely to be endemic to unknown regions of the Americas. It was also detected in numerous other host plants mainly ornamentals.
The subspecies of X. Characteristic symptoms of Pierce's disease of grapevine were observed in Taiwan in Risk of Introduction Top of page The greatest threats are to mild winter regions with one or more of the following crops: Its vectors in North America do not occur in the EPPO region, but vector capacity is so non-specific that one could certainly expect European Cicadellinae e.
After the recent introduction and spread of the vector Homalodisca vitripennis in California, USA, this leafhopper has become extremely abundant on citrus and other crops in southern California Sorensen and Gill, This illustrates that this exotic vector species can become abundant in Mediterranean climates, despite originating in a humid subtropical region south-eastern USA.
The main danger in the long term in Europe is that X. Nevertheless, infected planting material could introduce the disease to new areas. Hoddle modelled the distribution of X. Cold winter temperatures were seen as the limiting factor for X. Species distribution models employed by Bosso et al.
Mediterranean climates are particularly favourable for X. The persistence of X.
Information on the incidence and severity of the disease in the former Yugoslavia was not available as of early The South American strain on citrus also presents a major risk, for the climatic conditions of Mediterranean countries seem favourable to its development.
The reported damage in Brazil suggests potential damage even greater than for the grapevine disease.
No critical evaluation of possible European vectors has yet been made, but the arguments developed above for grapevine should certainly also apply to citrus. The peach strain is relatively less important, but X.
For citrus, habitats are chiefly commercial orchards.
For Pierce's disease strains, habitats may be riparian vegetation, irrigated pastures, hay fields, or ornamental landscapes. Almonds and lucerne can be hosts of the grapevine strains, but the diseases caused by X.
It is likely that in most symptomless host species, X. For example, blackberry Rubus spp. Hosts can be classified as propagative or non-propagative, systemic or non-systemic, and symptomatic or non-symptomatic Purcell and Saunders, b.
Propagative, systemic hosts are the best hosts for efficient vector acquisition of bacteria, but vectors can acquire the bacterium from non-systemic hosts.Our students scattered these pistachio "bugs" outside and then went "hunting" for them on four different occasions.
They counted how many of each color they found in each hunt and calculated the percent found and different survival rates for each of the different variations.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SAMPLE COSTS TO ESTABLISH and PRODUCE PISTACHIOS. Some varieties have a royalty fee with planting, but this cost is not included in this study. A large percentage of the present pistachio acreage receives surface water from state or federal canal systems, when available.
The water. The chestnuts are a group of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the genus Castanea, in the beech family heartoftexashop.com are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.. The name also refers to the edible nuts they produce.
Four levels of shaking amplitude for Ohady were 20, 40, 60 and 80 mm, while those of the Kaleghoochy were 40, 60, 80 and mm. Analysis of variance and mean comparison showed that the effects of shaking amplitude and frequency on pistachio nut and cluster detachment were significant on both varieties.
Genetic Diversity and Relationships Among Pistacia Species - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. on pistachio budding success on two kinds of rootstocks, he indicated that the treatment was ineffective in increasing branches growth rates.
The purposes of this (work) study were: 1.