In the books of Henry James, born in New York but later an expatriate in England, fiction took a different pathway. Like realists and naturalists of his time, he thought that fiction should reproduce reality. He conceived of reality, however, as twice translated—first,… Early life and works Henry James was named for his father, a prominent social theorist and lecturer, and was the younger brother of the pragmatist philosopher William James.
Biography of Mark Twain Mark Twain [pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens]quintessential American humorist, lecturer, essayist, and author wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer ; "Tom did play hookey, and he had a very good time.
He got back home barely in season to help Jim, the small colored boy, saw next-day's wood and split the kindlings before supper--at least he was there in time to tell his adventures to Jim while Jim did three-fourths of the work.
Tom's younger brother or rather half-brother Sid was already through with his part of the work picking up chipsfor he was a quiet boy, and had no adventurous, trouble-some ways.
While the novel was initially met with lukewarm enthusiasm, its characters would soon transcend the bounds of their pages and become internationally beloved characters, inspiring numerous other author's works and characters and adaptations to the stage, television, and film.
The second novel in his Tom Sawyer adventure series, Huckleberry Finnwas met with outright controversy in Twain's time but is now considered one of the first great American novels.
A backdrop of colourful depictions of Southern society and places along the way, Huck Finn, the son of an abusive alcoholic father and Jim, Miss Watson's slave, decide to flee on a raft down the Mississippi river to the free states.
Their river raft journey has become an oft-used metaphor of idealistic freedom from oppression, broken family life, racial discrimination, and social injustice. There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since.
It was kind of solemn, drifting down the big, still river, laying on our backs looking up at the stars, and we didn't ever feel like talking loud, and it warn't often that we laughed—only a little kind of a low chuckle. We had mighty good weather as a general thing, and nothing ever happened to us at all—that night, nor the next, nor the next.
He and some friends joined the Confederate side and formed a militia group, the "Marion Rangers", though it disbanded after a few weeks, described in "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed" His article "The War Prayer" "in the churches the pastors preached devotion to flag and country, and invoked the God of Battles beseeching His aid in our good cause" is Twain's condemnation of hypocritical patriotic and religious motivations for war.
It was not published until after his death because of his family's fear of public outrage. Though he never renounced his Presbyterianism, he wrote other irreligious pieces, some included in his collection of short stories Letters From Earth ; "Man is a marvelous curiosity.
When he is at his very, very best he is a sort of low grade nickel-plated angel; at his worst he is unspeakable, unimaginable; and first and last and all the time he is a sarcasm.
Through his works he illuminates the absurdity of humankind, ironically still at times labeled a racist. Though sometimes caustic, "Of all the creatures that were made he [man] is the most detestable," AutobiographyVol.
II as a gifted public speaker he was a much sought after lecturer. Twain is a master in crafting humorous verse with sardonic wit, and though with biting criticism at times he disarms with his renderings of colloquial speech and unpretentious language.
Through the authentic depiction of his times he caused much controversy and many of his works have been suppressed, censored or banned, but even into the Twenty-First Century his works are read the world over by young and old alike. A prolific lecturer and writer even into his seventy-fourth year, he published more than thirty books, hundreds of essays, speeches, articles, reviews, and short stories, many still in print today.
Situated on the banks of the Mississippi river it would later provide a model for the fictitious town of St. Petersburg in Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. When Twain's father died in the family was left in financial straits, so eleven year old Samuel left school he was in grade 5 and obtained his first of many jobs working with various newspapers and magazines including the Hannibal Courier as journeyman printer.
After traveling to and working in New York and Philadelphia for a few years he moved back to St. It was here that the lure of the elegant steamboats and festive crowds drew his attention and he became an apprentice 'cub' river pilot under Horace Bixby, earning his license in As a successful pilot plying his trade between St.
Louis and New Orleans, Twain also grew to love the second longest river in the world which he describes affectionately in his memoir Life on the Mississippi ; "The face of the water, in time, became a wonderful book — a book that was a dead language to the uneducated passenger, but which told its mind to me without reserve, delivering its most cherished secrets as clearly as if it uttered them with a voice.
And it was not a book to be read once and thrown aside, for it had a new story to tell every day. To 'mark twain' is to sound the depths and deem them safe for passage, the term adopted by Clemens as his pen name in Novel –Writing and Novel-Reading.
W. D. Howells ♣Background Information ☺William Dean Howells was the most influential American literary critic during the late 19th century and is regarded as.
Howells, William Dean. Howells and James: A Double Billing, Novel-Writing and Novel-Reading: An Impersonal heartoftexashop.com Henry James and Elizabeth Garver Jordan and William Merriam Gibson and Leon Edel and Lyall Harris Powers.
William Dean Howells became editor-in-chief at the Atlantic Monthly when he was just 29 years old. He held this post for more than 40 years, accepting work from all around the country. Interesting Talk with William Dean Howells,” NY Times, Oct.
28, “It is the business of the novel to picture the daily life in the most exact terms possible, with an absolute and clear sense of proportion. In his novel Indian Summer, William Dean Howells presents a mellow but realistic story that has the complete feel of that delightful time of the year, although the plot actually spans several seasons.
Henry James: Henry James, American novelist and, as a naturalized English citizen from , a great figure in the transatlantic culture.
His fundamental theme was the innocence and exuberance of the New World in clash with the corruption and wisdom of the Old, as illustrated in such works as Daisy Miller.